Japanese management is currently considered to be in crisis. This book analyzes the degree to which the Japanese management model is changing, in order to regain its competitiveness. It brings together up-to-date research on this important topic by a number of the best known American, Asian and European scholars of Japanese management. A broad variety of management areas such as strategy, corporate governance, globalization, organization, finance, HRM, production, innovation, organizational learning and retailing is covered.
A major contribution to the environmental policy debate, this is the first book to examine the legal, technical, and planning initiatives employed in Europe to avoid land disposal of toxic waste. Although largely ignored in the U.S. until now, safer alternatives to land disposal exist in Europe. By studying and implementing the best of these methods, the authors argue, the United States can begin to resolve its own toxic waste problem, a problem that has reached crisis proportions.
A research focus on hazards, risk perception and risk minimizing strategies is relatively new in the social and environmental sciences. This volume by a prominent scholar of East African societies is a powerful example of this growing interest. Earlier theory and research tended to describe social and economic systems in some form of equilibrium. However recent thinking in human ecology, evolutionary biology, not to mention in economic and political theory has come to assign to "risk" a prominent role in predictive modeling of behavior. It turns out that risk minimalization is central to the understanding of individual strategies and numerous social institutions. It is not simply a peripheral and transient moment in a group's history. Anthropologists interested in forager societies have emphasized risk management strategies as a major force shaping hunting and gathering routines and structuring institutions of food sharing and territorial behavior. This book builds on some of these developments but through the analysis of quite complex pastoral and farming peoples and in populations with substantial known histories. The method of analysis depends heavily on the controlled comparisons of different populations sharing some cultural characteristics but differing in exposure to certain risks or hazards.
The central questions guiding this approach are: 1) How are hazards generated through environmental variation and degradation, through increasing internal stratification, violent conflicts and marginalization? 2) How do these hazards result in damages to single households or to individual actors and how do these costs vary within one society? 3) How are hazards perceived by the people affected? 4) How do actors of different wealth, social status, age and gender try to minimize risks by delimiting the effect of damages during an on-going crisis and what kind of institutionalized measures do they design to insure themselves against hazards, preventing their occurrence or limiting their effects? 5) How is risk minimization affected by cultural innovation and how can the importance of the quest for enhanced security as a driving force of cultural evolution be estimated?
This book challenges the orthodox argument that rural populations which had abandoned self-sufficiency in the nineteenth century to become single commodity producers, and which were supposedly very vulnerable to the commodity price collapse of the 1930s depression, did not in fact suffer as severely as has been supposed. It shows how the effects of the depression in the Burma rice delta were complicated, varying between regions, between different kinds of economic actors, and over time, and shows how the 'victims' of the depression were not passive, but worked imaginatively to mitigate their circumstances.
For present study SMQ test was used. The test is taken from www.Stressmaster.com website (3219 E. Camelback Rd. #140 Phoenix, AZ 85018 480-444-630 Skype "TheStressmaster"). This test measures Stress level. In this research, I have discussed above old males and females from two different groups' stress level. 100 old persons (Male and Female) were selected randomly MAHISAGAR district area' join families and old age homes. Old persons were divided in two groups. Group one 'Join family', in which 50 persons (25 are male and 25 are female). Number of two' group 'Old Age Home', in which 50 persons (25 are males and 25 are females). After collecting the date statistical analysis was done according to key for the comparison of different groups 't' test was calculated."
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